Though chicoric acid was first identified in 1958, it was largely ignored until recent popular media coverage cited potential health beneficial properties from consuming food and dietary supplements containing this compound. To date, plants from at least 63 genera and species have been found to contain chicoric acid, and while the compound is used as a processing quality indicator, it may also have useful health benefits. This review of chicoric acid summarizes research findings and highlights gaps in research knowledge for investigators, industry stakeholders, and consumers alike. Additionally, chicoric acid identification, and quantification methods, biosynthesis, processing improvements to increase chicoric acid retention, and potential areas for future research are discussed.
Keywords: phenolics, polyphenolics, cichoric acid, caffeic acid derivative, dicaffeoyltartaric acid, hydroxycinnamic acid, phenolic acid
Citation: Lee J and Scagel CF (2013) Chicoric acid: chemistry, distribution, and production. Front. Chem. 1:40. doi: 10.3389/fchem.2013.00040
Received: 27 November 2013; Paper pending published: 19 December 2013;
Accepted: 19 December 2013; Published online: 31 December 2013.
Edited by:Matteo Balderacchi, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Italy
Reviewed by:Massimiliano Valentini, Agricultural Research Council, Italy
Copyright © 2013 Lee and Scagel. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
*Correspondence: Jungmin Lee, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Horticultural Crops Research Unit Worksite, 29603 U of I Ln, Parma, ID 83660, USA e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com