Breast cancer is a complex disease which is provoked by a multitude of exogenous and endogenous factors including genetic variations. Recent genome-wide association studies identified a set of more than 18 novel low penetrant susceptibility loci, however, a limitation of this powerful approach is the hampered analysis of polymorphisms in DNA sequences with a high degree of similarity to other genes or pseudo genes. Since this common feature affects the majority of the highly polymorphic genes encoding phase I and II enzymes the retrieval of specific genotype data requires adapted amplification methods. With regard to breast cancer these genes are of certain interest due to their involvement in the metabolism of carcinogens like exogenous genotoxic compounds or steroid hormones. The present review summarizes the observed effects of functional genetic variants of phase I and II enzymes in well designed case control studies to shed light on their contribution to breast cancer risk.
Keywords: breast cancer risk, tumor histo-pathology, phase I and II metabolism, polymorphisms, sequence homology
Citation: Justenhoven C (2012) Polymorphisms of phase I and phase II enzymes and breast cancer risk. Front. Gene. 3:258. doi: 10.3389/fgene.2012.00258
Received: 12 October 2012; Accepted: 05 November 2012;
Published online: 28 November 2012.
Edited by:Kathrin Klein, Dr. Margarete Fischer-Bosch-Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Germany
Reviewed by:Inke Regina König, Universität zu Lübeck, Germany
Copyright: © 2012 Justenhoven. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in other forums, provided the original authors and source are credited and subject to any copyright notices concerning any third-party graphics etc.
*Correspondence: Christina Justenhoven, Dr. Margarete Fischer-Bosch-Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Auerbachstr. 112, Stuttgart 70376, Germany. e-mail: email@example.com