There are millions of microbes that live in the human gut. These are important in digestion as well as defense. The host immune system needs to be able to distinguish between the harmless bacteria and pathogens. The initial interaction between bacteria and the host happen through the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). As these receptors are in direct contact with the external environment, this makes them important candidates for regulation by dietary components and therefore potential targets for therapy. In this review, we introduce some of the main PRRs including a cellular process known as autophagy, and how they function. Additionally we review dietary phytochemicals from plants which are believed to be beneficial for humans. The purpose of this review was to give a better understanding of how these components work in order to create better awareness on how they could be explored in the future.
Keywords: microbiota, autophagy, phytochemicals, Toll-like receptors, Nod-like receptors
Citation: Ahmed Nasef N, Mehta S and Ferguson LR (2014) Dietary interactions with the bacterial sensing machinery in the intestine: the plant polyphenol case. Front. Genet. 5:64. doi: 10.3389/fgene.2014.00064
Received: 17 December 2013; Accepted: 13 March 2014;
Published online: 04 April 2014.
Edited by:Dimiter Dimitrov, Diavita Ltd., Bulgaria
Reviewed by:Sander Kersten, Wageningen University, Netherlands
Copyright © 2014 Ahmed Nasef, Mehta and Ferguson. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
*Correspondence: Lynnette R. Ferguson, Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, 85 Park Road, Grafton, Auckland 1023, New Zealand e-mail: email@example.com