Plant-associated bacteria fulfill important functions for plant growth and health. However, our knowledge about the impact of bacterial treatments on the host's microbiome and physiology is limited. The present study was conducted to assess the impact of bacterial inoculants on the microbiome of chamomile plants Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert grown in a field under organic management in Egypt. Chamomile seedlings were inoculated with three indigenous Gram-positive strains (Streptomyces subrutilus Wbn2-11, Bacillus subtilis Co1-6, Paenibacillus polymyxa Mc5Re-14) from Egypt and three European Gram-negative strains (Pseudomonas fluorescens L13-6-12, Stenotrophomonas rhizophila P69, Serratia plymuthica 3Re4-18) already known for their beneficial plant-microbe interaction. Molecular fingerprints of 16S rRNA gene as well as real-time PCR analyses did not show statistically significant differences for all applied bacterial antagonists compared to the control. In contrast, a pyrosequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA gene libraries revealed significant differences in the community structure of bacteria between the treatments. These differences could be clearly shown by a shift within the community structure and corresponding beta-diversity indices. Moreover, B. subtilis Co1-6 and P. polymyxa Mc5Re-14 showed an enhancement of the bioactive secondary metabolite apigenin-7-O-glucoside. This indicates a possible new function of bacterial inoculants: to interact with the plant microbiome as well as to influence the plant metabolome.
Keywords: bioactive secondary metabolites, biological control agents, chamomile, microbial communities, soil-borne pathogens
Citation: Schmidt R, Köberl M, Mostafa A, Ramadan EM, Monschein M, Jensen KB, Bauer R and Berg G (2014) Effects of bacterial inoculants on the indigenous microbiome and secondary metabolites of chamomile plants. Front. Microbiol. 5:64. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2014.00064
Received: 30 September 2013; Accepted: 01 February 2014;
Published online: 19 February 2014.
Edited by:Martin Grube, Karl-Franzens-University Graz, Austria
Reviewed by:Igor Kovalchuk, University of Lethbridge, Canada
Copyright © 2014 Schmidt, Köberl, Mostafa, Ramadan, Monschein, Jensen, Bauer and Berg. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
*Correspondence: Gabriele Berg, Institute for Environmental Biotechnology, Graz University of Technology, Petersgasse 12/I, 8010 Graz, Austria e-mail: email@example.com