Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8; Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus) is an oncogenic gammaherpesvirus that primarily infects cells of the immune and vascular systems. HHV-8 interacts with and targets professional antigen presenting cells and influences their function. Infection alters the maturation, antigen presentation, and immune activation capabilities of certain dendritic cells (DC) despite non-robust lytic replication in these cells. DC sustains a low level of antiviral functionality during HHV-8 infection in vitro. This may explain the ability of healthy individuals to effectively control this virus without disease. Following an immune compromising event, such as organ transplantation or human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection, a reduced cellular antiviral response against HHV-8 compounded with skewed DC cytokine production and antigen presentation likely contributes to the development of HHV-8 associated diseases, i.e., Kaposi’s sarcoma and certain B cell lymphomas. In this review we focus on the role of DC in the establishment of HHV-8 primary and latent infection, the functional state of DC during HHV-8 infection, and the current understanding of the factors influencing virus-DC interactions in the context of HHV-8-associated disease.
Keywords: human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), herpesviruses, dendritic cells, Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), Kaposi’s sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, multicentric Castleman’s disease, DC-SIGN
Citation: Campbell DM, Rappocciolo G, Jenkins FJ and Rinaldo CR (2014) Dendritic cells: key players in human herpesvirus 8 infection and pathogenesis. Front. Microbiol. 5:452. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2014.00452
Received: 02 July 2014; Paper pending published: 01 August 2014;
Accepted: 11 August 2014; Published online: 28 August 2014.
Edited by:Michael McVoy, Virginia Commonwealth University, USA
Reviewed by:Michael McVoy, Virginia Commonwealth University, USA
Copyright © 2014 Campbell, Rappocciolo, Jenkins and Rinaldo. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
*Correspondence: Charles R. Rinaldo, Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, A419 Crabtree Hall, 130 DeSoto Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org