Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease of aging and currently has no cure. Its onset and progression are influenced by multiple factors. There is growing consensus that successful treatment will rely on simultaneously targeting multiple pathological features of AD. Polyphenol compounds have many proven health benefits. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that combining three polyphenolic preparations (grape seed extract, resveratrol, and Concord grape juice extract), with different polyphenolic compositions and partially redundant bioactivities, may simultaneously and synergistically mitigate amyloid-β (Aβ) mediated neuropathology and cognitive impairments in a mouse model of AD. We found that administration of the polyphenols in combination did not alter the profile of bioactive polyphenol metabolites in the brain. We also found that combination treatment resulted in better protection against cognitive impairments compared to individual treatments, in J20 AD mice. Electrophysiological examination showed that acute treatment with select brain penetrating polyphenol metabolites, derived from these polyphenols, improved oligomeric Aβ (oAβ)-induced long term potentiation (LTP) deficits in hippocampal slices. Moreover, we found greatly reduced total amyloid content in the brain following combination treatment. Our studies provided experimental evidence that application of polyphenols targeting multiple disease-mechanisms may yield a greater likelihood of therapeutic efficacy.
Keywords: Alzheimer's disease (AD), polyphenols, grape seed extract, grape juice, resveratrol, J20 mice
Citation: Wang J, Bi W, Cheng A, Freire D, Vempati P, Zhao W, Gong B, Janle EM, Chen T-Y, Ferruzzi MG, Schmeidler J, Ho L and Pasinetti GM (2014) Targeting multiple pathogenic mechanisms with polyphenols for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease-experimental approach and therapeutic implications. Front. Aging Neurosci. 6:42. doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2014.00042
Received: 14 January 2014; Accepted: 26 February 2014;
Published online: 14 March 2014.
Edited by:Claudia Perez-Cruz, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados, Mexico
Reviewed by:Ashok Kumar, University of Florida, USA
Copyright © 2014 Wang, Bi, Cheng, Freire, Vempati, Zhao, Gong, Janle, Chen, Ferruzzi, Schmeidler, Ho and Pasinetti. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
*Correspondence: Giulio M. Pasinetti, Department of Neurology, The Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 1 Gustave L. Levy Place, Box 1137, New York, NY 10029, USA e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org