This study sought to examine the effect of meditation experience on brain networks underlying cognitive actions employed during contemplative practice. In a previous study, we proposed a basic model of naturalistic cognitive fluctuations that occur during the practice of focused attention meditation. This model specifies four intervals in a cognitive cycle: mind wandering (MW), awareness of MW, shifting of attention, and sustained attention. Using subjective input from experienced practitioners during meditation, we identified activity in salience network regions during awareness of MW and executive network regions during shifting and sustained attention. Brain regions associated with the default mode were active during MW. In the present study, we reasoned that repeated activation of attentional brain networks over years of practice may induce lasting functional connectivity changes within relevant circuits. To investigate this possibility, we created seeds representing the networks that were active during the four phases of the earlier study, and examined functional connectivity during the resting state in the same participants. Connectivity maps were then contrasted between participants with high vs. low meditation experience. Participants with more meditation experience exhibited increased connectivity within attentional networks, as well as between attentional regions and medial frontal regions. These neural relationships may be involved in the development of cognitive skills, such as maintaining attention and disengaging from distraction, that are often reported with meditation practice. Furthermore, because altered connectivity of brain regions in experienced meditators was observed in a non-meditative (resting) state, this may represent a transference of cognitive abilities “off the cushion” into daily life.
Keywords: functional connectivity, attention, meditation, default mode, networks, fMRI
Citation: Hasenkamp W and Barsalou LW (2012) Effects of meditation experience on functional connectivity of distributed brain networks. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 6:38. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2012.00038
Received: 26 October 2011;
Accepted: 15 February 2012;
Published online: 01 March 2012.
Edited by:Amishi P. Jha, University of Miami, USA
Reviewed by:Juliana Yordanova, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Bulgaria
Copyright: © 2012 Hasenkamp and Barsalou. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial License, which permits non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in other forums, provided the original authors and source are credited.
*Correspondence: Wendy Hasenkamp, Department of Psychology, Emory University, 36 Eagle Row, Suite 270, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA. e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org