This article is part of the Research Topic Brain and Art

Original Research ARTICLE

Front. Hum. Neurosci., 13 May 2012 | doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2012.00044

Drawing enhances cross-modal memory plasticity in the human brain: a case study in a totally blind adult

  • The Smith-Kettlewell Eye Research Institute, San Francisco, CA, USA

In a memory-guided drawing task under blindfolded conditions, we have recently used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to demonstrate that the primary visual cortex (V1) may operate as the visuo-spatial buffer, or “sketchpad,” for working memory. The results implied, however, a modality-independent or amodal form of its operation. In the present study, to validate the role of V1 in non-visual memory, we eliminated not only the visual input but all levels of visual processing by replicating the paradigm in a congenitally blind individual. Our novel Cognitive-Kinesthetic method was used to train this totally blind subject to draw complex images guided solely by tactile memory. Control tasks of tactile exploration and memorization of the image to be drawn, and memory-free scribbling were also included. FMRI was run before training and after training. Remarkably, V1 of this congenitally blind individual, which before training exhibited noisy, immature, and non-specific responses, after training produced full-fledged response time-courses specific to the tactile-memory drawing task. The results reveal the operation of a rapid training-based plasticity mechanism that recruits the resources of V1 in the process of learning to draw. The learning paradigm allowed us to investigate for the first time the evolution of plastic re-assignment in V1 in a congenitally blind subject. These findings are consistent with a non-visual memory involvement of V1, and specifically imply that the observed cortical reorganization can be empowered by the process of learning to draw.

Keywords: drawing, blind, brain plasticity, primary visual cortex V1, working memory, visuo-spatial sketchpad, learning, fMRI

Citation: Likova LT (2012) Drawing enhances cross-modal memory plasticity in the human brain: a case study in a totally blind adult. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 6:44. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2012.00044

Received: 14 April 2011; Accepted: 22 February 2012;
Published online: 14 May 2012.

Edited by:

Idan Segev, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel

Reviewed by:

David J. McGonigle, Cardiff University, UK
Hidenao Fukuyama, Kyoto University, Japan

Copyright: © 2012 Likova. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial License, which permits non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in other forums, provided the original authors and source are credited.

*Correspondence: Lora T. Likova, The Smith-Kettlewell Eye Research Institute, 2318 Fillmore Street San Francisco, CA 94115, USA. e-mail:

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