Human populations differ reliably in the degree to which people favor family, friends, and community members over strangers and outsiders. In the last decade, researchers have begun to propose several economic and evolutionary hypotheses for these cross-population differences in parochialism. In this paper, we outline major current theories and review recent attempts to test them. We also discuss the key methodological challenges in assessing these diverse economic and evolutionary theories for cross-population differences in parochialism.
Keywords: parochialism, in-group favoritism, cross-cultural, market integration, religion, institutions, parasite stress, closeness
Citation: Hruschka DJ and Henrich J (2013) Economic and evolutionary hypotheses for cross-population variation in parochialism. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 7:559. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00559
Received: 08 April 2013; Accepted: 22 August 2013;
Published online: 11 September 2013.
Edited by:Susanne Leiberg, University of Zurich, Switzerland
Reviewed by:Jack Van Honk, Utrecht University, Netherlands
Copyright © 2013 Hruschka and Henrich. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
*Correspondence: Daniel J. Hruschka, School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University, 900 S Cady Mall, PO Box 872402, Tempe, AZ 85287-2402, USA e-mail: email@example.com