Perinatal brain damage is one of the leading causes of life long disability. This damage could be hypoxic–ischemic, inflammatory, or both. This mini-review discusses different interventions aiming at minimizing inflammatory processes in the neonatal brain, both before and after insult. Current options of anti-inflammatory measures for neonates remain quite limited. We describe current anti-inflammatory intervention strategies such as avoiding perinatal infection and inflammation, and reducing exposure to inflammatory processes. We describe the known effects of anti-inflammatory drugs such as steroids, antibiotics, and indomethacin, and the possible anti-inflammatory role of other substances such as IL-1 receptor antagonists, erythropoietin, caffeine, estradiol, insulin-like growth factor, and melatonin as well as endogenous protectors, and genetic regulation of inflammation. If successful, these may decrease mortality and long-term morbidity among term and pre-term infants.
Keywords: inflammation, neonatal, brain injury, neuro-developmental outcome, treatment
Citation: Ofek-Shlomai N and Berger I (2014) Inflammatory injury to the neonatal brain – what can we do? Front. Pediatr. 2:30. doi: 10.3389/fped.2014.00030
Received: 10 November 2013; Paper pending published: 22 November 2013;
Accepted: 27 March 2014; Published online: 09 April 2014.
Edited by:Ariel Tenenbaum, Hadassah Medical Center, Israel
Reviewed by:Ariel Tenenbaum, Hadassah Medical Center, Israel
Copyright: © 2014 Ofek-Shlomai and Berger. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
*Correspondence: Itai Berger, Pediatric Division, The Neuro-Cognitive Center, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Mount Scopus, P.O. Box 24035, Jerusalem 91240, Israel e-mail: email@example.com