One of the emerging systems in plant–microbe interaction is the study of proteins, referred to as effectors, secreted by microbes in order to modulate host cells function and structure and to promote microbial growth on plant tissue. Current knowledge on fungal effectors derives mainly from biotrophic and hemibiotrophic plant fungal pathogens that have a limited host range. Here, we focus on effectors of Piriformospora indica, a soil borne endophyte forming intimate associations with roots of a wide range of plant species. Complete genome sequencing provides an opportunity to investigate the role of effectors during the interaction of this mutualistic fungus with plants. We describe in silico analyses to predict effectors of P. indica and we explore effector features considered here to mine a high priority protein list for functional analysis.
Keywords: fungal effector biology, small secreted proteins, biotrophy, symbiosis, endophyte
Citation: Rafiqi M, Jelonek L, Akum NF, Zhang F and Kogel K-H (2013) Effector candidates in the secretome of Piriformospora indica, a ubiquitous plant-associated fungus. Front. Plant Sci. 4:228. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2013.00228
Received: 01 March 2013; Accepted: 10 June 2013;
Published online: 11 July 2013.
Edited by:Corné M. J. Pieterse, Utrecht University, Netherlands
Reviewed by:Weixing Shan, Northwest A&F University, China
Copyright: © 2013 Rafiqi, Jelonek, Akum, Zhang and Kogel. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in other forums, provided the original authors and source are credited and subject to any copyright notices concerning any third-party graphics etc.
*Correspondence: Maryam Rafiqi and Karl-Heinz Kogel, Institute of Phytopathology and Applied Zoology, Research Centre for BioSystems, Land use, and Nutrition, Justus Liebig University, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26-32, Giessen, Germany e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; karl-Heinz.Kogel@agrar.uni-giessen.de