This article is part of the Research Topic Causality and Learning under Adapted Temporal Perception

Original Research ARTICLE

Front. Psychol., 28 November 2012 | doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00524

Auditory time-interval perception as causal inference on sound sources

  • 1Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
  • 2Graduate School of Information Systems, University of Electro-Communications, Tokyo, Japan

Perception of a temporal pattern in a sub-second time scale is fundamental to conversation, music perception, and other kinds of sound communication. However, its mechanism is not fully understood. A simple example is hearing three successive sounds with short time intervals. The following misperception of the latter interval is known: underestimation of the latter interval when the former is a little shorter or much longer than the latter, and overestimation of the latter when the former is a little longer or much shorter than the latter. Although this misperception of auditory time intervals for simple stimuli might be a cue to understanding the mechanism of time-interval perception, there exists no model that comprehensively explains it. Considering a previous experiment demonstrating that illusory perception does not occur for stimulus sounds with different frequencies, it might be plausible to think that the underlying mechanism of time-interval perception involves a causal inference on sound sources: herein, different frequencies provide cues for different causes. We construct a Bayesian observer model of this time-interval perception. We introduce a probabilistic variable representing the causality of sounds in the model. As prior knowledge, the observer assumes that a single sound source produces periodic and short time intervals, which is consistent with several previous works. We conducted numerical simulations and confirmed that our model can reproduce the misperception of auditory time intervals. A similar phenomenon has also been reported in visual and tactile modalities, though the time ranges for these are wider. This suggests the existence of a common mechanism for temporal pattern perception over modalities. This is because these different properties can be interpreted as a difference in time resolutions, given that the time resolutions for vision and touch are lower than those for audition.

Keywords: time-interval perception, Bayesian inference, source identification, causal inference

Citation: Sawai K, Sato Y and Aihara K (2012) Auditory time-interval perception as causal inference on sound sources. Front. Psychology 3:524. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00524

Received: 31 July 2012; Accepted: 06 November 2012;
Published online: 28 November 2012.

Edited by:

Hirokazu Tanaka, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Japan

Reviewed by:

Hirokazu Tanaka, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Japan
Hiroyuki Kambara, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan

Copyright: © 2012 Sawai, Sato and Aihara. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in other forums, provided the original authors and source are credited and subject to any copyright notices concerning any third-party graphics etc.

*Correspondence: Ken-ichi Sawai, Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4–6–1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505, Japan. e-mail:

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