Background: Procrastination is a prevalent and problematic phenomenon that has mostly been studied in the domain of academic behavior. The current study shows that procrastination may also lead to harmful outcomes in the area of health behavior, introducing bedtime procrastination as an important factor related to getting insufficient sleep and consequently affecting individual well-being. Bedtime procrastination is defined as failing to go to bed at the intended time, while no external circumstances prevent a person from doing so.
Methods: To empirically support the conceptual introduction of bedtime procrastination, an online survey study was conducted among a community sample (N = 177). The relationship between bedtime procrastination and individual difference variables related to self-regulation and general procrastination was assessed. Moreover, it was investigated whether bedtime procrastination was a predictor of self-reported sleep outcomes (experienced insufficient sleep, hours of sleep, fatigue during the day).
Results: Bedtime procrastination was negatively associated with self-regulation: people who scored lower on self-regulation variables reported more bedtime procrastination. Moreover, self-reported bedtime procrastination was related to general reports of insufficient sleep above and beyond demographics and self-regulation.
Conclusions: Introducing a novel domain in which procrastinators experience problems, bedtime procrastination appears to be a prevalent and relevant issue that is associated with getting insufficient sleep.
Keywords: procrastination, self-regulation, sleep, health, MTurk
Citation: Kroese FM, De Ridder DTD, Evers C and Adriaanse MA (2014) Bedtime procrastination: introducing a new area of procrastination. Front. Psychol. 5:611. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00611
Received: 07 March 2014; Accepted: 30 May 2014;
Published online: 19 June 2014.
Edited by:Marcel Zentner, University of Innsbruck, Austria
Reviewed by:Ralph Erich Schmidt, University of Geneva, Switzerland
Copyright © 2014 Kroese, De Ridder, Evers and Adriaanse. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
*Correspondence: Floor M. Kroese, Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, Utrecht University, PO Box 80.140, Heidelberglaan 1, 3508 TC Utrecht, Netherlands e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org