Studies over the past decade have helped to decipher molecular networks dependent on Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, in mycobacteria-infected macrophages. Stimulation of TLRs by mycobacteria and their antigenic components rapidly induces intracellular signaling cascades involved in the activation of nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, which play important roles in orchestrating proinflammatory responses and innate defense through generation of a variety of antimicrobial effector molecules. Recent studies have provided evidence that mycobacterial TLR-signaling cross talks with other intracellular antimicrobial innate pathways, the autophagy process and functional vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling. In this article we describe recent advances in the recognition, responses, and regulation of mycobacterial signaling through TLRs.
Keywords: mycobacteria, vitamin D, autophagy, antimicrobial peptides, innate immunity
Citation: Basu J, Shin D-M and Jo E-K (2012) Mycobacterial signaling through toll-like receptors. Front. Cell. Inf. Microbio. 2:145. doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2012.00145
Received: 01 August 2012; Accepted: 06 November 2012;
Published online: 23 November 2012.
Edited by:Nelson Gekara, Umea University, Sweden
Reviewed by:Maximiliano G. Gutierrez, Medical Research Council- National Institute for Medical Research, UK
Copyright © 2012 Basu, Shin and Jo. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in other forums, provided the original authors and source are credited and subject to any copyright notices concerning any third-party graphics etc.
*Correspondence: Eun-Kyeong Jo, Department of Microbiology and Infection Signaling Network Research Center, Chungnam National University School of Medicine, 301-747, Daejeon, South Korea. e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org