Mechanisms of obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance: insights into the emerging role of nutritional strategies
- Nutrigenomics Research Group, UCD Conway Institute, School of Public Health, Physiotherapy and Population Science, University College Dublin, Dublin, Republic of Ireland
Obesity and associated chronic inflammation initiate a state of insulin resistance (IR). The secretion of chemoattractants such as MCP-1 and MIF and of cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β, draw immune cells including dendritic cells, T cells, and macrophages into adipose tissue (AT). Dysfunctional AT lipid metabolism leads to increased circulating free fatty acids, initiating inflammatory signaling cascades in the population of infiltrating cells. A feedback loop of pro-inflammatory cytokines exacerbates this pathological state, driving further immune cell infiltration and cytokine secretion and disrupts the insulin signaling cascade. Disruption of normal AT function is causative of defects in hepatic and skeletal muscle glucose homeostasis, resulting in systemic IR and ultimately the development of type 2 diabetes. Pharmaceutical strategies that target the inflammatory milieu may have some potential; however there are a number of safety concerns surrounding such pharmaceutical approaches. Nutritional anti-inflammatory interventions could offer a more suitable long-term alternative; whilst they may be less potent than some pharmaceutical anti-inflammatory agents, this may be advantageous for long-term therapy. This review will investigate obese AT biology, initiation of the inflammatory, and insulin resistant environment; and the mechanisms through which dietary anti-inflammatory components/functional nutrients may be beneficial.
Keywords: obesity, inflammation, immune cell infiltration, insulin resistance, nutrient sensing, PUFA
Citation: McArdle MA, Finucane OM, Connaughton RM, McMorrow AM and Roche HM (2013) Mechanisms of obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance: insights into the emerging role of nutritional strategies. Front. Endocrinol. 4:52. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2013.00052
Received: 10 December 2012; Accepted: 22 April 2013;
Published online: 10 May 2013.
Edited by:Tsuguhito Ota, Kanazawa University, Japan
Reviewed by:Andrzej Bartke, Southern Illinois University, USA
Shinichi Oikawa, Nippon Medical School, Japan
Copyright: © 2013 McArdle, Finucane, Connaughton, McMorrow and Roche. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in other forums, provided the original authors and source are credited and subject to any copyright notices concerning any third-party graphics etc.
*Correspondence: Maeve A. McArdle, Nutrigenomics Research Group, UCD Conway Institute, School of Public Health, Physiotherapy and Population Science, University College Dublin, Dublin 4, Republic of Ireland. e-mail: email@example.com