Mini Review ARTICLE
Thyroid hormone role on cerebellar development and maintenance: a perspective based on transgenic mouse models
- Laboratorio de Endocrinologia Molecular, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Cerebellum development is sensitive to thyroid hormone (TH) levels, as THs regulate neuronal migration, differentiation, and myelination. Most effects of THs are mediated by the thyroid hormone receptor (TR) isoforms TRβ1, TRβ2, and TRα1. Studies aimed at identifying TH target genes during cerebellum development have only achieved partial success, as some of these genes do not possess classical TH-responsive elements, and those that do are likely to be temporally and spatially regulated by THs. THs may also affect neurodevelopment by regulating transcription factors that control particular groups of genes. Furthermore, TH action can also be affected by TH transport, which is mediated mainly by monocarboxylate transporter family members. Studies involving transgenic animal models and genome-wide expression analyses have helped to address the unanswered questions regarding the role of TH in cerebellar development. Recently, a growing body of evidence has begun to clarify the molecular, cellular, and functional aspects of THs in the developing cerebellum. This review describes the current findings concerning the effects of THs on cerebellar development and maintenance as well as advances in the genetic animal models used in this field.
Keywords: thyroid hormones, genes, cerebellum, brain development, animal models
Citation: Faustino LC and Ortiga-Carvalho TM (2014) Thyroid hormone role on cerebellar development and maintenance: a perspective based on transgenic mouse models. Front. Endocrinol. 5:75. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2014.00075
Received: 26 February 2014; Accepted: 02 May 2014;
Published online: 20 May 2014.
Edited by:Frédéric Flamant, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, France
Reviewed by:Heike Heuer, Leibniz Institute for Age Research – Fritz Lipmann Institute, Germany
Isabelle Dusart, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France
Copyright: © 2014 Faustino and Ortiga-Carvalho. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
*Correspondence: Tania M. Ortiga-Carvalho, Laboratorio de Endocrinologia Molecular, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Carlos Chagas Filho, s/n Cidade Universitária, Rio de Janeiro 21941-902, Brazil e-mail: email@example.com