The cellular and molecular mechanisms of immuno-suppression by human type 1 regulatory T cells
- 1 Division of Regenerative Medicine, Stem Cells and Gene Therapy, San Raffaele Telethon Institute for Gene Therapy (HSR-TIGET), San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
- 2 Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy
The immuno-regulatory mechanisms of IL-10-producing type 1 regulatory T (Tr1) cells have been widely studied over the years. However, several recent discoveries have shed new light on the cellular and molecular mechanisms that human Tr1 cells use to control immune responses and induce tolerance. In this review we outline the well known and newly discovered regulatory properties of human Tr1 cells and provide an in-depth comparison of the known suppressor mechanisms of Tr1 cells with FOXP3+ Treg. We also highlight the role that Tr1 cells play in promoting and maintaining tolerance in autoimmunity, allergy, and transplantation.
Keywords: IL-10, Tr1 cells, immunotolerance, FOXP3+ Treg
Citation: Gregori S, Goudy KS and Roncarolo MG (2012) The cellular and molecular mechanisms of immuno-suppression by human type 1 regulatory T cells. Front. Immun. 3:30. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2012.00030
Received: 14 December 2011; Paper pending published: 29 December 2011;
Accepted: 11 February 2012; Published online: 29 February 2012.
Edited by:Kendall A. Smith, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, USA
Reviewed by:Kendall A. Smith, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, USA
António Castro, University of Minho, Portugal
Nikolai Petrovsky, Flinders Medical Centre, Australia
Copyright: © 2012 Gregori, Goudy and Roncarolo. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial License, which permits non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in other forums, provided the original authors and source are credited.
*Correspondence: Maria Grazia Roncarolo, Division of Regenerative Medicine, San Raffaele Telethon Institute for Gene Therapy (HSR-TIGET), Via Olgettina 58, 20132 Milan, Italy. e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
†Silvia Gregori and Kevin S. Goudy have contributed equally to this work.