Mini Review ARTICLE
Reactive oxidants and myeloperoxidase and their involvement in neutrophil extracellular traps
- Centre for Free Radical Research, Department of Pathology, University of Otago Christchurch, Christchurch, New Zealand
Neutrophils release extracellular traps (NETs) in response to a variety of inflammatory stimuli. These structures are composed of a network of chromatin strands associated with a variety of neutrophil-derived proteins including the enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO). Studies into the mechanisms leading to the formation of NETs indicate a complex process that differs according to the stimulus. With some stimuli an active nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase is required. However, assigning specific reactive oxygen species involved downstream of the oxidase is a difficult task and definitive proof for any single oxidant is still lacking. Pharmacological inhibition of MPO and the use of MPO-deficient neutrophils indicate active MPO is required with phorbol myristate acetate as a stimulus but not necessarily with bacteria. Reactive oxidants and MPO may also play a role in NET-mediated microbial killing. MPO is present on NETs and maintains activity at this site. Therefore, MPO has the potential to generate reactive oxidants in close proximity to trapped microorganisms and thus effect microbial killing. This brief review discusses current evidence for the involvement of reactive oxidants and MPO in NET formation and their potential contribution to NET antimicrobial activity.
Keywords: superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorous acid
Citation: Parker H and Winterbourn CC (2013) Reactive oxidants and myeloperoxidase and their involvement in neutrophil extracellular traps. Front. Immun. 3:424. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2012.00424
Received: 10 October 2012; Accepted: 23 December 2012;
Published online: 21 January 2013.
Edited by:Marko Radic, University of Tennessee, USA
Reviewed by:Nadine Varin-Blank, Institut National de la Santé et de Recherche Médicale, France
Mariana J. Kaplan, University of Michigan, USA
Copyright: © 2013 Parker and Winter bourn. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in other forums, provided the original authors and source are credited and subject to any copyright notices concerning any third-party graphics etc.
*Correspondence: Heather Parker, Centre for Free Radical Research, Department of Pathology, University of Otago Christchurch, P.O. Box 4345, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand. e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org