Dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapy employs the patients’ immune system to fight neoplastic lesions spread over the entire body. This makes it an important therapy option for patients suffering from metastatic melanoma, which is often resistant to chemotherapy. However, conventional cellular vaccination approaches, based on monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs), only achieved modest response rates despite continued optimization of various vaccination parameters. In addition, the generation of moDCs requires extensive ex vivo culturing conceivably hampering the immunogenicity of the vaccine. Recent studies, thus, focused on vaccines that make use of primary DCs. Though rare in the blood, these naturally circulating DCs can be readily isolated and activated thereby circumventing lengthy ex vivo culture periods. The first clinical trials not only showed increased survival rates but also the induction of diversified anti-cancer immune responses. Upcoming treatment paradigms aim to include several primary DC subsets in a single vaccine as pre-clinical studies identified synergistic effects between various antigen-presenting cells.
Keywords: dendritic cell vaccination, immunotherapy, naturally circulating dendritic cells, melanoma, monocyte-derived dendritic cells, plasmacytoid dendritic cells, myeloid dendritic cells
Citation: Wimmers F, Schreibelt G, Sköld AE, Figdor CG and De Vries IJM (2014) Paradigm shift in dendritic cell-based immunotherapy: from in vitro generated monocyte-derived DCs to naturally circulating DC subsets. Front. Immunol. 5:165. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2014.00165
Received: 03 February 2014; Paper pending published: 01 March 2014;
Accepted: 28 March 2014; Published online: 11 April 2014.
Edited by:Marianne Boes, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Netherlands
Copyright: © 2014 Wimmers, Schreibelt, Sköld, Figdor and De Vries. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
*Correspondence: I. Jolanda M. De Vries, Department of Tumor Immunology, Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud University Medical Center, Geert Grooteplein 26, P.O. Box 9101, Nijmegen 6500 HB, Netherlands e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org