Vaccines for gonorrhea: can we rise to the challenge?
- 1 Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
- 2 Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA
- 3 Department of Microbiology, Uniformed University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD, USA
Immune responses to the gonococcus after natural infection ordinarily result in little immunity to reinfection, due to antigenic variation of the gonococcus, and redirection or suppression of immune responses. Brinton and colleagues demonstrated that parenteral immunization of male human volunteers with a purified pilus vaccine gave partial protection against infection by the homologous strain. However, the vaccine failed in a clinical trial. Recent vaccine development efforts have focused on the female mouse model of genital gonococcal infection. Here we discuss the state of the field, including our unpublished data regarding efficacy in the mouse model of either viral replicon particle (VRP) vaccines, or outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccines. The OMV vaccines failed, despite excellent serum and mucosal antibody responses. Protection after a regimen consisting of a PorB-VRP prime plus recombinant PorB boost was correlated with apparent Th1, but not with antibody, responses. Protection probably was due to powerful adjuvant effects of the VRP vector. New tools including novel transgenic mice expressing human genes required for gonococcal infection should enable future research. Surrogates for immunity are needed. Increasing antimicrobial resistance trends among gonococci makes development of a vaccine more urgent.
Keywords: Neisseria gonorrhoeae, vaccines, mouse models, immune responses, viral replicon particles, outer membranes, recombinant proteins
Citation: Zhu W, Chen C-J, Thomas CE, Anderson JE, Jerse AE and Sparling PF (2011) Vaccines for gonorrhea: can we rise to the challenge?. Front. Microbio. 2:124. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2011.00124
Received: 31 January 2011; Paper pending published: 07 March 2011;
Accepted: 19 May 2011; Published online: 03 June 2011.
Edited by:Cynthia N. Cornelissen, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, USA
Reviewed by:Magdalene So, University of Arizona, USA
Peter A. Rice, University of Massachusetts Medical School/UMass Memorial Medical Center, USA
Copyright: © 2011 Zhu, Chen, Thomas, Anderson, Jerse and Sparling. This is an open-access article subject to a non-exclusive license between the authors and Frontiers Media SA, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in other forums, provided the original authors and source are credited and other Frontiers conditions are complied with.
*Correspondence: P. Frederick Sparling, Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina, 5113 Bioinformatics Building, 130 Mason Farm Road, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7537, USA. e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org