Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) target the stratified epidermis, and can causes diseases ranging from benign condylomas to malignant tumors. Infections of HPVs in the genital tract are among the most common sexually transmitted diseases, and a major risk factor for cervical cancer. The virus targets epithelial cells in the basal layer of the epithelium, while progeny virions egress from terminally differentiated cells in the cornified layer, the surface layer of the epithelium. In infected basal cells, the virus maintains its genomic DNA at low-copy numbers, at which the viral productive lifecycle cannot proceed. Progression of the productive lifecycle requires differentiation of the host cell, indicating that there is tight crosstalk between viral replication and host differentiation programs. In this review, we discuss the regulation of the HPV lifecycle controlled by the differentiation program of the host cells.
Keywords: HPV, differentiation, epithelial cell, keratinocyte
Citation: Kajitani N, Satsuka A, Kawate A and Sakai H (2012) Productive lifecycle of human papillomaviruses that depends upon squamous epithelial differentiation. Front. Microbio. 3:152. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2012.00152
Received: 28 December 2011; Accepted: 02 April 2012;
Published online: 24 April 2012.
Edited by:Akio Adachi, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Japan
Reviewed by:Iwao Kukimoto, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japan
Copyright: © 2012 Kajitani, Satsuka, Kawate and Sakai. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial License, which permits non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in other forums, provided the original authors and source are credited.
*Correspondence: Hiroyuki Sakai, Laboratory of Gene Analysis, Department of Viral Oncology, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan. e-mail: email@example.com