Over one billion people worldwide are predicted to harbor Toxoplasma infection frequently with unknown lifelong health consequences. Toxoplasmosis is an important cause of foodborne, inflammatory illnesses, as well as congenital abnormalities. Ubiquitous Toxoplasma has a unique tropism for central nervous system with a mind-bugging effect and is transmitted sexually through semen. Currently available therapies are ineffective for persistent chronic disease and congenital toxoplasmosis or have severe side effects which may result in life-threatening complications. There is an urgent need for safe and effective therapies to eliminate or treat this cosmopolitan infectious and inflammatory disease. This investigation discusses pathogenesis of maternal and congenital toxoplasmosis, the currently available therapies in practice, and the experimental therapeutic modalities for promising future trials.
Keywords: fetal maternal, congenital toxoplasmosis, mind alteration, sexual transmission, atovaquone, diclazuril
Citation: Oz HS (2014) Maternal and congenital toxoplasmosis, currently available and novel therapies in horizon. Front. Microbiol. 5:385. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2014.00385
Received: 17 June 2014; Paper pending published: 08 July 2014;
Accepted: 10 July 2014; Published online: 24 July 2014.
Edited by:Veeranoot Nissapatorn, University of Malaya, Malaysia
Reviewed by:Diego A. Vargas-Inchaustegui, National Cancer Institute, USA
Copyright © 2014 Oz. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
*Correspondence: Helieh S. Oz, Department of Medicine, University of Kentucky Medical Center, Lexington, KY 40536, USA e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org