Same species, different diseases: how and why typhoidal and non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica serovars differ
- 1The Infectious Diseases Research Laboratory, Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Israel
- 2Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, Hamburg, Germany
- 3Institute for Experimental Medicine, Christian Albrechts University Kiel, Kiel, Germany
- 4Research Center Borstel, Borstel, Germany
Human infections by the bacterial pathogen Salmonella enterica represent major disease burdens worldwide. This highly ubiquitous species consists of more than 2600 different serovars that can be divided into typhoidal and non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars. Despite their genetic similarity, these two groups elicit very different diseases and distinct immune responses in humans. Comparative analyses of the genomes of multiple Salmonella serovars have begun to explain the basis of the variation in disease manifestations. Recent advances in modeling both enteric fever and intestinal gastroenteritis in mice will facilitate investigation into both the bacterial- and host-mediated mechanisms involved in salmonelloses. Understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms responsible for differences in disease outcome will augment our understanding of Salmonella pathogenesis, host immunity, and the molecular basis of host specificity. This review outlines the differences in epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and the human immune response to typhoidal and NTS infections and summarizes the current thinking on why these differences might exist.
Keywords: Salmonella enterica, typhoid, enteric fever, NTS, salmonellosis, gastroenteritis
Citation: Gal-Mor O, Boyle EC and Grassl GA (2014) Same species, different diseases: how and why typhoidal and non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica serovars differ. Front. Microbiol. 5:391. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2014.00391
Received: 23 May 2014; Paper pending published: 20 June 2014;
Accepted: 12 July 2014; Published online: 04 August 2014.
Edited by:Constantino López-Macías, Mexican Social Security Institute, Mexico and University of Oxford, UK
Reviewed by:Laurel L. Lenz, National Jewish Health, USA
Ranjit Kumar, University of Alabama at Birmingham, USA
Copyright © 2014 Gal-Mor, Boyle and Grassl. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
*Correspondence: Guntram A. Grassl, Institute for Experimental Medicine, Christian Albrechts University Kiel, Kiel, Germany; Research Center Borstel, Parkallee 29, 23845 Borstel, Germany e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org