Developmental disorders of the midbrain and hindbrain
- Department of Radiology and Biomolecular Imaging, Neuroradiology Section, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA
Malformations of the midbrain (MB) and hindbrain (HB) have become topics of considerable interest in the neurology and neuroscience literature in recent years. The combined advances of imaging and molecular biology have improved analyses of structures in these areas of the central nervous system, while advances in genetics have made it clear that malformations of these structures are often associated with dysfunction or malformation of other organ systems. This review focuses upon the importance of communication between clinical researchers and basic scientists in the advancement of knowledge of this group of disorders. Disorders of anteroposterior (AP) patterning, cerebellar hypoplasias, disorders associated with defects of the pial limiting membrane (cobblestone cortex), disorders of the Reelin pathway, and disorders of the primary cilium/basal body organelle (molar tooth malformations) are the main focus of the review.
Keywords: midbrain, hindbrain, cerebellum, malformations
Citation: Barkovich AJ (2012) Developmental disorders of the midbrain and hindbrain. Front. Neuroanat. 6:7. doi: 10.3389/fnana.2012.00007
Received: 14 December 2011; Paper pending published: 07 January 2012;
Accepted: 20 February 2012; Published online: 06 March 2012.
Edited by:Salvador Martinez, University Miguel Hernandez, Spain
Reviewed by:Nobuaki Tamamaki, Kumamoto University, Japan
Kazunori Nakajima, Keio University School of Medicine, Japan
Copyright: © 2012 Barkovich. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial License, which permits non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in other forums, provided the original authors and source are credited.
*Correspondence: A. James Barkovich, Department of Radiology and Biomolecular Imaging, Neuroradiology Section, Rm L371, University of California at San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143-0628, USA. e-mail: email@example.com