Front. Neurol., 06 July 2012 | doi: 10.3389/fneur.2012.00107

Serum-based protein biomarkers in blast-induced traumatic brain injury spectrum disorder

  • 1 Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Genetics, Uniformed Services University, Bethesda, MD, USA
  • 2 Experimental Trauma Unit, Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 3 Veterans Affairs Central Office, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, Washington, DC, USA

The biological consequences of exposure to explosive blast are extremely complex. Serum protein biomarkers in blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) can aid in determining injury severity, monitoring progress, and predicting outcome. Exposure to blast results in varying degrees of physical injury. Explosive blast can also induce psychological stress that can contribute to or amplify the extent of physical damage. Given the complexity, scale of injury, and variety of symptoms, bTBI may be best described as a spectrum disorder. In this focused review, we summarize the status of serum protein biomarkers in bTBI in the context of the classification and pathological changes of other forms of TBI. Finally, we recommend specific and easily implementable measures to accelerate serum protein biomarker discovery and validation in bTBI.

Keywords: blood, proteomics, traumatic, brain, injury, blast, biomarkers, serum

Citation: Agoston DV and Elsayed M (2012) Serum-based protein biomarkers in blast-induced traumatic brain injury spectrum disorder. Front. Neur. 3:107. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2012.00107

Received: 26 March 2012; Paper pending published: 15 April 2012;
Accepted: 12 June 2012; Published online: 06 July 2012.

Edited by:

Mattias Sköld, Uppsala University, Sweden

Reviewed by:

Antonino F. Germano, University of Messina, Italy
Stefania Mondello, University of Florida, USA
Amade Bregy, University of Miami, USA

Copyright: © 2012 Agoston and Elsayed. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in other forums, provided the original authors and source are credited and subject to any copyright notices concerning any third-party graphics etc.

*Correspondence: Denes V. Agoston, Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Genetics, School of Medicine, Uniformed Services University, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA. e-mail:;

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