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This article is part of the Research Topic OCT in Neurodegenerative Diseases

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Front. Neurol. | doi: 10.3389/fneur.2017.00493

The contribution of optical coherence tomography in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders.

  • 1Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital Clínico Universitario Lozano Blesa, Spain
  • 2Dept. of Ophthalmology, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland
  • 3IIS Aragón, Spain

Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) comprises a group of central nervous system disorders of inflammatory autoimmune origin that mainly affect the optic nerves and the spinal cord and can cause severe visual and general disability. The clinical signs are similar to those of multiple sclerosis (MS), with the result that it is often difficult to differentiate between the two, thus leading to misdiagnosis. As the treatment and prognosis of NMOSD and MS are different, it is important to make an accurate and early diagnosis of NMOSD.
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive technique that enables a quantitative study of the changes that the optic nerve and the macula undergo in several neurodegenerative diseases. Many studies have shown that some of these changes, such as retinal nerve fiber layer thinning or microcystic macular edema, can be related to alterations in the brain due to neurodegenerative disorders.
The purpose of this mini-review is to show how OCT can be useful for the diagnosis of NMOSD and follow-up of affected patients, as well as for the differential diagnosis with MS.

Keywords: Neuromyelitis Optica, Optical Coherence Tomography, Optic Neuritis, Multiple Sclerosis, autoimmune diseases., Devic disease

Received: 24 May 2017; Accepted: 04 Sep 2017.

Edited by:

ELENA H. MARTÍNEZ-LAPISCINA, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, Spain

Reviewed by:

Lisanne Balk, VU University Medical Center, Netherlands
Hanna G. Zimmermann, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany
Andrés Cruz-Herranz, University of California, San Francisco, United States
Christian Cordano, University of California, San Francisco, United States  

Copyright: © 2017 Mateo, Esteban, Martinez, Grzybowski and ASCASO. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Prof. Andrzej Grzybowski, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Dept. of Ophthalmology, Olsztyn, Poland, ae.grzybowski@gmail.com