Impact Factor


Original Research ARTICLE

Front. Neurosci., 25 February 2014 | http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2014.00024

Treatment of phantom limb pain (PLP) based on augmented reality and gaming controlled by myoelectric pattern recognition: a case study of a chronic PLP patient

Max Ortiz-Catalan1,2*, Nichlas Sander1, Morten B. Kristoffersen1,2, Bo Håkansson1 and Rickard Brånemark2
  • 1Biomedical Engineering Division, Department of Signals and Systems, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden
  • 2Department of Orthopaedics, Centre of Orthopaedic Osseointegration, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden

A variety of treatments have been historically used to alleviate phantom limb pain (PLP) with varying efficacy. Recently, virtual reality (VR) has been employed as a more sophisticated mirror therapy. Despite the advantages of VR over a conventional mirror, this approach has retained the use of the contralateral limb and is therefore restricted to unilateral amputees. Moreover, this strategy disregards the actual effort made by the patient to produce phantom motions. In this work, we investigate a treatment in which the virtual limb responds directly to myoelectric activity at the stump, while the illusion of a restored limb is enhanced through augmented reality (AR). Further, phantom motions are facilitated and encouraged through gaming. The proposed set of technologies was administered to a chronic PLP patient who has shown resistance to a variety of treatments (including mirror therapy) for 48 years. Individual and simultaneous phantom movements were predicted using myoelectric pattern recognition and were then used as input for VR and AR environments, as well as for a racing game. The sustained level of pain reported by the patient was gradually reduced to complete pain-free periods. The phantom posture initially reported as a strongly closed fist was gradually relaxed, interestingly resembling the neutral posture displayed by the virtual limb. The patient acquired the ability to freely move his phantom limb, and a telescopic effect was observed where the position of the phantom hand was restored to the anatomically correct distance. More importantly, the effect of the interventions was positively and noticeably perceived by the patient and his relatives. Despite the limitation of a single case study, the successful results of the proposed system in a patient for whom other medical and non-medical treatments have been ineffective justifies and motivates further investigation in a wider study.

Keywords: phantom limb pain, augmented reality, virtual reality, myoelectric control, electromyography, pattern recognition, neurorehabilitation

Citation: Ortiz-Catalan M, Sander N, Kristoffersen MB, Håkansson B and Brånemark R (2014) Treatment of phantom limb pain (PLP) based on augmented reality and gaming controlled by myoelectric pattern recognition: a case study of a chronic PLP patient. Front. Neurosci. 8:24. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2014.00024

Received: 04 October 2013; Accepted: 27 January 2014;
Published online: 25 February 2014.

Edited by:

David Guiraud, Institut National de la Recherche en Informatique et Automatique, France

Reviewed by:

Martin Lotze, University of Greifswald, Germany
Alireza Mousavi, Brunel University, UK

Copyright © 2014 Ortiz-Catalan, Sander, Kristoffersen, Håkansson and Brånemark. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

*Correspondence: Max Ortiz-Catalan, Division of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Signals and Systems, Chalmers University of Technology, Hörsalsvägen 11, 41296 Gothenburg, Sweden e-mail: maxo@chalmers.se