Regulation of intraocular pressure by soluble and membrane guanylate cyclases and their role in glaucoma
- 1Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care, and Pain Medicine, Anesthesia Center for Critical Care Research, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
- 2Department of Pharmacology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN, USA
- 3Department of Ophthalmology, Glaucoma Service Mass Eye and Ear Infirmary and Channing Division of Network Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
- 4Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Schepens Eye Research Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
Glaucoma is a progressive optic neuropathy characterized by visual field defects that ultimately lead to irreversible blindness (Alward, 2000; Anderson et al., 2006). By the year 2020, an estimated 80 million people will have glaucoma, 11 million of which will be bilaterally blind. Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most common type of glaucoma. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is currently the only risk factor amenable to treatment. How IOP is regulated and can be modulated remains a topic of active investigation. Available therapies, mostly geared toward lowering IOP, offer incomplete protection, and POAG often goes undetected until irreparable damage has been done, highlighting the need for novel therapeutic approaches, drug targets, and biomarkers (Heijl et al., 2002; Quigley, 2011). In this review, the role of soluble (nitric oxide (NO)-activated) and membrane-bound, natriuretic peptide (NP)-activated guanylate cyclases that generate the secondary signaling molecule cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in the regulation of IOP and in the pathophysiology of POAG will be discussed.
Keywords: guanylate cyclase, nitric oxide, natriuretic peptides, glaucoma, open-angle, intraocular pressure
Citation: Buys ES, Potter LR, Pasquale LR and Ksander BR (2014) Regulation of intraocular pressure by soluble and membrane guanylate cyclases and their role in glaucoma. Front. Mol. Neurosci. 7:38. doi: 10.3389/fnmol.2014.00038
Received: 14 March 2014; Paper pending published: 19 April 2014;
Accepted: 21 April 2014; Published online: 19 May 2014.
Edited by:Clint Lawrence Makino, Harvard Medical School, USA
Copyright © 2014 Buys, Potter, Pasquale and Ksander. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
*Correspondence: Emmanuel S. Buys, Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care, and Pain Medicine, Anesthesia Center for Critical Care Research, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit Street, Thier 511B, Boston, MA 02114, USA e-mail: email@example.com