Front. Syst. Neurosci., 24 January 2014 |

Transcranial direct current stimulation: five important issues we aren't discussing (but probably should be)

  • Psychological Sciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulatory device often publicized for its ability to enhance cognitive and behavioral performance. These enhancement claims, however, are predicated upon electrophysiological evidence and descriptions which are far from conclusive. In fact, a review of the literature reveals a number of important experimental and technical issues inherent with this device that are simply not being discussed in any meaningful manner. In this paper, we will consider five of these topics. The first, inter-subject variability, explores the extensive between- and within-group differences found within the tDCS literature and highlights the need to properly examine stimulatory response at the individual level. The second, intra-subject reliability, reviews the lack of data concerning tDCS response reliability over time and emphasizes the importance of this knowledge for appropriate stimulatory application. The third, sham stimulation and blinding, draws attention to the importance (yet relative lack) of proper control and blinding practices in the tDCS literature. The fourth, motor and cognitive interference, highlights the often overlooked body of research that suggests typical behaviors and cognitions undertaken during or following tDCS can impair or abolish the effects of stimulation. Finally, the fifth, electric current influences, underscores several largely ignored variables (such as hair thickness and electrode attachments methods) influential to tDCS electric current density and flow. Through this paper, we hope to increase awareness and start an ongoing dialog of these important issues which speak to the efficacy, reliability, and mechanistic foundations of tDCS.

Keywords: transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), variability, reliability, efficacy, mechanisms of action

Citation: Horvath JC, Carter O and Forte JD (2014) Transcranial direct current stimulation: five important issues we aren't discussing (but probably should be). Front. Syst. Neurosci. 8:2. doi: 10.3389/fnsys.2014.00002

Received: 18 December 2013; Accepted: 08 January 2014;
Published online: 24 January 2014.

Edited by:

Mikhail Lebedev, Duke University, USA

Reviewed by:

Carmelo M. Vicario, University of Queensland, Australia
Nick J. Davis, Swansea University, UK

Copyright © 2014 Horvath, Carter and Forte. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

*Correspondence: Jared C. Horvath, Psychological Sciences, University of Melbourne, Redmond Barry Bldg. 613, Melbourne, VIC 3010, Australia e-mail: