Standard radiation therapy for patients undergoing primary chemosensitized radiation for carcinomas of the cervix usually consists of external beam radiation followed by an intracavitary brachytherapy boost. On occasion, the brachytherapy boost cannot be performed due to unfavorable anatomy or because of coexisting medical conditions. We examined the safety and efficacy of using CyberKnife stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) as a boost to the cervix after external beam radiation in those patients unable to have brachytherapy to give a more effective dose to the cervix than with conventional external beam radiation alone. Six consecutive patients with anatomic or medical conditions precluding a tandem and ovoid boost were treated with combined external beam radiation and CyberKnife boost to the cervix. Five patients received 45 Gy to the pelvis with serial intensity-modulated radiation therapy boost to the uterus and cervix to a dose of 61.2 Gy. These five patients received an SBRT boost to the cervix to a dose of 20 Gy in five fractions of 4 Gy each. One patient was treated to the pelvis to a dose of 45 Gy with an external beam boost to the uterus and cervix to a dose of 50.4 Gy. This patient received an SBRT boost to the cervix to a dose of 19.5 Gy in three fractions of 6.5 Gy. Five percent volumes of the bladder and rectum were kept to ≤75 Gy in all patients (i.e., V75 Gy ≤ 5%). All of the patients remain locally controlled with no evidence of disease following treatment. Grade 1 diarrhea occurred in 4/6 patients during the conventional external beam radiation. There has been no grade 3 or 4 rectal or bladder toxicity. There were no toxicities observed following SBRT boost. At a median follow-up of 14 months, CyberKnife radiosurgical boost is well tolerated and efficacious in providing a boost to patients with cervix cancer who are unable to undergo brachytherapy boost. Further follow-up is required to see if these results remain durable.
Keywords: cervix, SBRT, brachytherapy, CyberKnife
Citation: Haas JA, Witten MR, Clancey O, Episcopia K, Accordino D and Chalas E (2012) CyberKnife boost for patients with cervical cancer unable to undergo brachytherapy. Front. Oncol. 2:25. doi: 10.3389/fonc.2012.00025
Received: 18 November 2011; Accepted: 20 February 2012;
Published online: 21 March 2012.
Edited by:Brian Timothy Collins, Georgetown Hospital, USA
Reviewed by:Sean Collins, Georgetown University Hospital, USA
Copyright: © 2012 Haas, Witten, Clancey, Episcopia, Accordino and Chalas. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial License, which permits non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in other forums, provided the original authors and source are credited.
*Correspondence: Jonathan Andrew Haas, Division of Radiation Oncology, Winthrop-University Hospital, 264 Old Country Road, Mineola, NY 11501, USA. e-mail: email@example.com