Yeasts, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, have long served as useful models for the study of oxidative stress, an event associated with cell death and severe human pathologies. This review will discuss oxidative stress in yeast, in terms of sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS), their molecular targets, and the metabolic responses elicited by cellular ROS accumulation. Responses of yeast to accumulated ROS include upregulation of antioxidants mediated by complex transcriptional changes, activation of pro-survival pathways such as mitophagy, and programmed cell death (PCD) which, apart from apoptosis, includes pathways such as autophagy and necrosis, a form of cell death long considered accidental and uncoordinated. The role of ROS in yeast aging will also be discussed.
Keywords: oxidative stress, yeast, apoptosis, necrosis, mitophagy, autophagy, aging
Citation: Farrugia G and Balzan R (2012) Oxidative stress and programmed cell death in yeast. Front. Oncol. 2:64. doi: 10.3389/fonc.2012.00064
Received: 03 April 2012; Accepted: 02 June 2012;
Published online: 21 June 2012.
Edited by:Frank Madeo, Karl-Franzens-Universitat Graz, Austria
Reviewed by:Michael Breitenbach, University of Salzburg, Austria
Copyright: © 2012 Farrugia and Balzan. This is an openaccess article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial License, which permits non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in other forums, provided the original authors and source are credited.
*Correspondence: Rena Balzan, Department of Physiology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Malta, Msida MSD 2080, Malta. e-mail: email@example.com