Hypothesis & Theory ARTICLE
14-3-3 Phosphoprotein interaction networks – does isoform diversity present functional interaction specification?
- 1 Program in Plant Molecular and Cellular Biology, Horticultural Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA
- 2 Interdisciplinary Center for Biotechnology Research, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA
The 14-3-3 proteins have emerged as major phosphoprotein interaction proteins and thereby constitute a key node in the Arabidopsis Interactome Map, a node through which a large number of important signals pass. Throughout their history of discovery and description, the 14-3-3s have been described as protein families and there has been some evidence that the different 14-3-3 family members within any organism might carry isoform-specific functions. However, there has also been evidence for redundancy of 14-3-3 function, suggesting that the perceived 14-3-3 diversity may be the accumulation of neutral mutations over evolutionary time and as some 14-3-3 genes develop tissue or organ-specific expression. This situation has led to a currently unresolved question – does 14-3-3 isoform sequence diversity indicate functional diversity at the biochemical or cellular level? We discuss here some of the key observations on both sides of the resulting debate, and present a set of contrastable observations to address the theory functional diversity does exist among 14-3-3 isoforms. The resulting model suggests strongly that there are indeed functional specificities in the 14-3-3s of Arabidopsis. The model further suggests that 14-3-3 diversity and specificity should enter into the discussion of 14-3-3 roles in signal transduction and be directly approached in 14-3-3 experimentation. It is hoped that future studies involving 14-3-3s will continue to address specificity in experimental design and analysis.
Keywords: Arabidopsis, GRF, plant, subcellular localization, 14-3-3 isoform specificity
Citation: Paul A-L, Denison FC, Schultz ER, Zupanska AK and Ferl RJ (2012) 14-3-3 Phosphoprotein interaction networks – does isoform diversity present functional interaction specification? Front. Plant Sci. 3:190. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2012.00190
Received: 07 June 2012; Accepted: 02 August 2012;
Published online: 20 August 2012.
Edited by:Steve Clouse, North Carolina State University, USA
Reviewed by:Claudia Oecking, University of Tübingen, Germany
Sacco C. De Vries, Wageningen University, Netherlands
Copyright: © 2012 Paul, Denison, Schultz, Zupanska and Ferl. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in other forums, provided the original authors and source are credited and subject to any copyright notices concerning any third-party graphics etc.
*Correspondence: Robert J. Ferl, Interdisciplinary Center for Biotechnology Research, University of Florida, 1301 Fifield Hall, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA; Program in Plant Molecular and Cellular Biology, Horticultural Science Department, University of Florida, 1301 Fifield Hall, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA. e-mail: email@example.com