Original Research ARTICLE
Social communication and theory of mind in boys with autism and fragile X syndrome
- 1 Roxelyn and Richard Pepper Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA
- 2 Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
- 3 Division of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Department of Allied Health Sciences, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
Impairments in the social use of language, or pragmatics, constitute a core characteristic of autism. Problems with pragmatic language have also been documented in fragile X syndrome (FXS), a monogenic condition that is the most common known genetic cause of autism. Evidence suggests that social cognitive ability, or theory of mind, may also be impaired in both conditions, and in autism, may importantly relate to pragmatic language ability. Given the substantial overlap observed in autism and FXS, this study aimed to better define those social-communicative phenotypes that overlap in these two conditions by comparing pragmatic language ability and theory of mind in children with idiopathic autism and children with FXS, with and without autism, as well as children with Down syndrome and typically developing controls. We further examined correlations between these cognitive-behavioral phenotypes and molecular genetic variation related to the Fragile X Mental Retardation-1 gene (FMR1) in the FXS group. Results indicated that children with idiopathic autism and those with FXS and autism performed comparably on direct-assessment measures of pragmatic language and theory of mind, whereas those with FXS only did not differ from controls. Theory of mind was related to pragmatic language ability in all groups. Pragmatic language and theory of mind also correlated with genetic variation at the FMR1 locus (Cytosine-Guanine-Guanine repeats and percent methylation). These results point toward substantial overlap in the social and language phenotypes in autism and FXS and suggest a molecular genetic basis to these phenotypic profiles.
Keywords: autism, fragile X syndrome, pragmatic language, social communication, theory of mind
Citation: Losh M, Martin GE, Klusek J, Hogan-Brown AL and Sideris J (2012) Social communication and theory of mind in boys with autism and fragile X syndrome. Front. Psychology 3:266. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00266
Received: 03 April 2012; Paper pending published: 30 April 2012;
Accepted: 09 July 2012; Published online: 20 August 2012.
Edited by:Daniela Plesa Skwerer, Boston University, USA
Reviewed by:Teresa Mitchell, University of Massachusetts Medical School, USA
Audra Sterling, University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA
Lizbeth Finestack, University of Minnesota, USA
Copyright: © 2012 Losh, Martin, Klusek, Hogan-Brown and Sideris. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in other forums, provided the original authors and source are credited and subject to any copyright notices concerning any third-party graphics etc.
*Correspondence: Molly Losh, Roxelyn and Richard Pepper Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Northwestern University, Frances Searle, Evanston, IL 60208, USA. e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org