The role of self-blaming moral emotions in major depression and their impact on social-economical decision making
- 1Neuroscience and Psychiatry Unit, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, School of Medicine, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
- 2Neuroscience and Aphasia Research Unit, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, School of Psychological Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
People with major depressive disorder (MDD) are more prone to experiencing moral emotions related to self-blame, such as guilt and shame. DSM-IV-TR recognizes excessive or inappropriate guilt as one of the core symptoms of current MDD, whereas excessive shame is not part of the criteria for MDD. However, previous studies specifically assessing shame suggested its involvement in MDD. In the first part of this review, we will consider literature discussing the role of self-blaming moral emotions in MDD. These self-blaming moral emotions have been purported to influence people when they make social and financial decisions in cognitive studies, particularly those using neuroeconomical paradigms. Such paradigms aim to predict social behavior in activities of daily living, by using important resource tangibles (especially money) in laboratory conditions. Previous literature suggests that guilt promotes altruistic behavior via acting out reparative tendencies, whereas shame reduces altruism by means of increasing social and interpersonal distance. In the second part of this review, we will discuss the potential influence of self-blaming moral emotions on overt behavior in MDD, reviewing clinical and experimental studies in social and financial decision-making, in which guilt, and shame were manipulated. This is not a well-established area in the depression literature, however in this opinion paper we will argue that studies of moral emotions and their impact on behavioral decision-making are of potential importance in the clinical field, by linking specific symptoms of a disorder to a behavioral outcome which may lead to stratification of clinical diagnoses in the future.
Keywords: guilt, shame, major depressive disorder, neuroeconomics, social-economical decision making, neuroimaging
Citation: Pulcu E, Zahn R and Elliott R (2013) The role of self-blaming moral emotions in major depression and their impact on social-economical decision making. Front. Psychol. 4:310. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00310
Received: 12 March 2013; Accepted: 14 May 2013;
Published online: 03 June 2013.
Edited by:Marit T. Schmid, University of Bergen, Norway
Reviewed by:Nils I. Landro, University of Oslo, Norway
Karen L. Bales, University of California Davis, USA; Derrick L. Hassert, Trinity Christian College, USA
Copyright: © 2013 Pulcu, Zahn and Elliott. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in other forums, provided the original authors and source are credited and subject to any copyright notices concerning any third-party graphics etc.
*Correspondence: Rebecca Elliott, Neuroscience and Psychiatry Unit, Medical School, The University of Manchester, Stopford Building, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL, UK e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org