Front. Psychiatry, 25 January 2013 |

Yoga on our minds: a systematic review of yoga for neuropsychiatric disorders

Meera Balasubramaniam1*, Shirley Telles2 and P. Murali Doraiswamy1,3*
  • 1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA
  • 2Indian Council of Medical Research Center for Advanced Research in Yoga and Patanjali Research Foundation, Bengaluru, India
  • 3Duke Institute for Brain Sciences, Durham, NC, USA

Background: The demand for clinically efficacious, safe, patient acceptable, and cost-effective forms of treatment for mental illness is growing. Several studies have demonstrated benefit from yoga in specific psychiatric symptoms and a general sense of well-being.

Objective: To systematically examine the evidence for efficacy of yoga in the treatment of selected major psychiatric disorders.

Methods: Electronic searches of The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the standard bibliographic databases, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO, were performed through April 2011 and an updated in June 2011 using the keywords yoga AND psychiatry OR depression OR anxiety OR schizophrenia OR cognition OR memory OR attention AND randomized controlled trial (RCT). Studies with yoga as the independent variable and one of the above mentioned terms as the dependent variable were included and exclusion criteria were applied.

Results: The search yielded a total of 124 trials, of which 16 met rigorous criteria for the final review. Grade B evidence supporting a potential acute benefit for yoga exists in depression (four RCTs), as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy in schizophrenia (three RCTs), in children with ADHD (two RCTs), and Grade C evidence in sleep complaints (three RCTs). RCTs in cognitive disorders and eating disorders yielded conflicting results. No studies looked at primary prevention, relapse prevention, or comparative effectiveness versus pharmacotherapy.

Conclusion: There is emerging evidence from randomized trials to support popular beliefs about yoga for depression, sleep disorders, and as an augmentation therapy. Limitations of literature include inability to do double-blind studies, multiplicity of comparisons within small studies, and lack of replication. Biomarker and neuroimaging studies, those comparing yoga with standard pharmaco- and psychotherapies, and studies of long-term efficacy are needed to fully translate the promise of yoga for enhancing mental health.

Keywords: yoga, meditation, depression, schizophrenia, cognition, ADHD, clinical trials, alternative medicine

Citation: Balasubramaniam M, Telles S and Doraiswamy PM (2013) Yoga on our minds: a systematic review of yoga for neuropsychiatric disorders. Front. Psychiatry 3:117. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2012.00117

Received: 09 September 2012; Paper pending published: 12 October 2012;
Accepted: 20 December 2012; Published online: 25 January 2013.

Edited by:

Susan A. Everson-Rose, University of Minnesota, USA

Reviewed by:

Dusan Kolar, Queen’s University, Canada
Felicia Iftene, Queens University, Canada

Copyright: © 2013 Balasubramaniam, Telles and Doraiswamy. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in other forums, provided the original authors and source are credited and subject to any copyright notices concerning any third-party graphics etc.

*Correspondence: Meera Balasubramaniam, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA. e-mail:; P. Murali Doraiswamy, DUMC-3018, Department of Psychiatry, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA. e-mail: