This article is part of the Research Topic Neuroprosthetic devices

Perspective ARTICLE

Front. Neurosci., 12 February 2010 | http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/neuro.20.001.2010

Electric stimulation with sinusoids and white noise for neural prostheses

1
The Center for Innovative Visual Rehabilitation, Boston VA Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA
2
Department of Neurosurgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
3
Department of Neurophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, MA, USA
We are investigating the use of novel stimulus waveforms in neural prostheses to determine whether they can provide more precise control over the temporal and spatial pattern of elicited activity as compared to conventional pulsatile stimulation. To study this, we measured the response of retinal ganglion cells to both sinusoidal and white noise waveforms. The use of cell-attached and whole cell patch clamp recordings allowed the responses to be observed without significant obstruction from the stimulus artifact. Electric stimulation with sinusoids elicited robust responses. White noise analysis was used to derive the linear kernel for the ganglion cell’s spiking response as well as for the underlying excitatory currents. These results suggest that in response to electric stimulation, presynaptic retinal neurons exhibit bandpass filtering characteristics with a peak response that occurs 25 ms after onset. The experimental approach demonstrated here may be useful for studying the temporal response properties of other neurons in the CNS.
Keywords:
retinal ganglion cells, electric stimulation, neural prostheses, white noise
Citation:
Freeman DK, Rizzo JF III and Fried SI (2010). Electric stimulation with sinusoids and white noise for neural prostheses. Front. Neurosci. 4:28. doi: 10.3389/neuro.20.001.2010
Received:
17 December 2009;
 Paper pending published:
10 January 2010;
Accepted:
19 January 2010;
 Published online:
12 February 2010.

Edited by:

Victor Pikov, Huntington Medical Research Institutes, USA

Reviewed by:

Mesut Sahin, New Jersey Institute of Technology, USA
Victor Pikov, Huntington Medical Research Institutes, USA
Copyright:
© 2010 Freeman, Rizzo III and Fried. This is an open-access article subject to an exclusive license agreement between the authors and the Frontiers Research Foundation, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original authors and source are credited.
*Correspondence:
Shelley I. Fried, Department of Neurosurgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 50 Blossom Street, Room 429, Boston, MA 02114, USA. e-mail: sfried1@partners.org